The text says that any decisions regarding the status of the city are “null and void” and must be be cancelled.
The non-binding resolution was approved by 128 states, with 35 abstaining and nine others voting against.
It came after US President Donald Trump threatened to cut financial aid to those who backed the resolution.
Before the vote, the Palestinian foreign minister urged member states to reject “blackmail and intimidation”.
Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu meanwhile said it would reject the anticipated result “outright” and dismissed the UN as a “house of lies”.